Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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33 Fall 2015 Proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings connected via fexible hose, which is designed to handle liquefed natural gas. Further, each hose is ftted with an emergency release coupling and each feature purpose-built saddles that provide support and maintain the proper hose bend radius over the vessel rail. Cargo transfer commences after vessel manifold and cargo transfer equipment cool- down. Vapor generated during the STS operation is not vented to the atmosphere, as both vessels consume boil-off gas to properly manage tank pressure. Floating Liquefaction, Storage, and Ofoading Unit Although a large amount of global natural gas reserves are located in remote areas, continually evolving liquefed natu- ral gas technologies have made these reserves accessible. The FLSO (floating liquefaction, storage, and offloading unit) produces liquefed natural gas and stores it on a foat- ing vessel, which "unlocks" these remote gas felds to bring LNG to the consumer. contains a compartment in its bow that accepts the STL buoy as a permanent moor during regasifcation operation and provides the HP gas discharge point to the fexible riser and into the subsea pipeline for onward transmission to the shore pipeline. There are two FSRU ports in the U.S., both located outside the port of Boston. Both utilize the deepwater STL buoy con- cept. 3 Additionally, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commis- sion recently approved a foating storage regasifcation unit port that utilizes an across-the-dock, hard arm sea island regasifcation terminal concept. 4 Ship-to-Ship Transfer Operations Although commonplace in the oil industry, the world's frst commercial full LNG cargo ship-to-ship (STS) transfer occurred in February 2007 in the U.K. 5 Since then, commer- cial STS transfer operations are becoming more common, especially since FSRUs require periodic replenishment to allow a continuous supply of natural gas to market. For example, the ship-to-ship operation may entail transferring a full cargo of liquefed natu- ral gas from a conventional LNG tanker to the foating storage regasifcation unit. Depending on the facility's design, liquefed natural gas can be transferred between the two vessels via cryo- genic fexible hose or hard arm or via a double- banked mooring arrangement or across-the-dock confguration. As in the oil industry, in double-banked STS operations, LNG vessels are moored side by side and their liquid manifolds connected via fexible cargo transfer hoses. In addition, both the deliv- ering and receiving vessels' vapor manifolds are An FSRU gateway. An FSRU gas port. An example of a ship-to-ship transfer.