Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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55 Spring 2016 Proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings The job: Elements related to the job (see Table 2) are asso- ciated with working conditions and job design, including the work environment, stress, work schedule, task type, workload, control and display design, and procedures. As such, companies should design tasks to take account of the physical and mental strengths and limitations of the people performing the job. The organization: Elements related to the organization (see Table 3) consist of the policies, procedures, and methods that affect the design of the job, including aspects related to the organizational culture, training, manning, leadership, safety culture, training management, personnel selection, and retention. Feedback Loop for Safety Performance Improvement How do human factors affect the deck plate level? Incor- porating human factors elements into a safety manage- ment system may optimize personnel performance. These Integrating human factors into a safety management system (SMS) allows a company to identify and analyze relevant human factors issues, then apply appropriate tools, meth- ods, and measures to address those issues. For example, effectively integrating human factors elements into a safety management system can: • improve staff effectiveness and well-being; • facilitate appropriate allocation of human resources; • contribute to an overall safety culture; • improve training process effectiveness; • decrease costs from redesign activities; • improve equipment usability; • provide information that improves safety performance, which reduces risk and improves SMS effectiveness. This all results in the goals of optimizing performance, increasing effciency, and reducing costs. So — what are these "human factor" elements? They can be grouped into three main categories: • the individual, • the job, • the organization. The individual: Elements related to the individual (see Table 1) include factors asso- ciated with people at all levels of an organi- zation — from the head of a company to the seafarer at the deck plate — with regard to their culture, skills, personality, motivation, physical build, and risk perception. While some characteristics are fxed, such as per- sonality, physiology, and physical build; other characteristics such as knowledge, skills, and attitudes can be changed or improved. Putting People at the Center Integrating human factors into safety management systems. by ms. DAWn m. gRAy Offce of Design and Engineering Standards Human Element and Ship Design Division U.S. Coast Guard Investigations and Safety Management Systems Table 1: Individual Elements Ability and Behavior Person-Related Conditions ✓ Knowledge/competence/attitude ✓ Skills ✓ Fitness/health ✓ Experience ✓ Communication skills ✓ Languages ✓ Listening skills ✓ Motivation ✓ Fatigue ✓ Personality ✓ Capabilities (physical and mental) ✓ Risk perception ✓ Decision-making capabilities ✓ Confdence ✓ Workload management ✓ Culture, beliefs, and values ✓ Stress Adapted from: European Railway Agency, Application guide for the design and implementation of Railway Safety Management System: Integrating Human Factors in SMS, ERA/GUI/10-2013/ SAF V 1.0, 2013.