Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
Issue link: http://uscgproceedings.epubxp.com/i/665311
57 Spring 2016 Proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings Task and job design: Improving job, task, and workspace design can provide significant improvements in human performance. Further, ensuring that tasks and activities are appropriately suited to the operator's or team's capa- bilities and limitations can significantly reduce human error risk. For example, tasks can negatively impact human Predicting System-Specifc Human Factors Risks All of the human factors elements presented can positively and negatively infuence the risk of human error. Human Reli- ability Analysis (HRA) is a useful methodology that can help predict system-specifc human factors risks. 1 What is HRA? Human reliability is the probability that people will perform as required for the specifed time and environmental condi- tions. Human reliability analysis provides methodologies which can quantify human performance-related risks for a specifc system design. Several HRA methods are identifed in the table below: How It Works The HRA process involves problem identifcation, task anal- ysis, error identification, error modeling, quantification, and integration into risk assessment. Problem identifcation includes defning: 1) who is interacting with the system (and their mental and physical abilities); 2) system confguration being analyzed (i.e. hardware and software); and 3) environmental operating conditions. Human reliability calculations are used to estimate frequen- cies or probabilities in risk models. Based on a system's individual, job, and organizational human factors elements, using HRA techniques can help identify the type of human errors that can occur within a system design, quantify how likely it is the identifed errors will occur, and help companies reduce those calculated likelihoods. All of these factors can show a company where it is vulner- able to human error. The company can then use SMS elements to reduce operational risks and minimize associated conse- quences through mitigation, planning, and monitoring processes. How Maritime Companies Can Learn More About HRA Literature on HRA is available from many different sources, some of which include those cited here: ● A.J. Spurgin, Human Reliability Assess- ment Theory and Practice, 1st Edition, 2009. ● B. Kirwan, Practical Human Reliability Assessment, Taylor & Francis, 1994. ● B.S. Dhillon, Human Reliability and Error in Transportation Systems, 2007. ● Human Reliability Analysis Methods Selection Guidance for NASA, 2006 edition. Additionally, some maritime consulting companies employ experts in HRA and ofer HRA services as well as other human factors analysis services for identifying and mitigating human error opportunities. Endnote: 1. B. Kirwan, Practical Human Reliability Assessment, Taylor & Francis, 1994. 2. Human Reliability Analysis Methods Selection Guidance for NASA, 2006 edition. HRA Methodology Description Human Factors Process Failure Modes and Efects Analysis (HF PFMEA) Qualitative technique used to identify potential human errors, error types, error contributing factors, and consequences of error. Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) Comprehensive analysis technique used to perform preliminary task analysis and to estimate human error probabilities. Vessel/facility-specifc and event-specifc information is obtained. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) Simple technique with available data based on ergonomics and performance research. Error- producing conditions are obtained to calculate human error probability. Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) Flexible technique that uses task analysis, assessment of performance infuencing factors, and performance context to estimate human error probability. performance if they involve excessive time pressure, com- plex sequences of operations, reliance on memory, or are physically or mentally fatiguing. It is important to identify performance objectives up front that organizations can use to evaluate safety performance when designing task sequences and actions for safety-critical tasks.