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9 Summer 2016 Proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings Regional Tools The importance of the waterborne industries to coastal communities can vary from region to region and city to city, and there are a number of regional tools that can be used to better understand and value the waterborne economy at the local level. Using Virginia por t communities as an example, we discuss three such resources: NOAA Coastal Community Explorer The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA A) has developed useful regional data and visualization tools that highlight the ocean and Great Lakes economies for coastal counties and states. For example, Economics: National Ocean Watch (ENOW) data 1 provides county and state snapshots as well as a data explorer that allows users to access data on a number of waterborne industries at the county and state levels. This information provides employment totals, wages, the number of establishments, and gross domestic product, all broken down by economic sector related to the ocean economy. It also provides county, state, and national comparisons by economic sectors that are part of the ocean and Great Lakes waterborne economy. For example, the ENOW data explorer's "quick summary" of Norfolk City, a port city in Virginia, indicates that in 2012 the ocean economy represented 12 percent of total employment in Norfolk City, and ranked 39 of 402 coastal counties in terms of employment in the ocean economy. Census Local Employment Dynamics Data T h e Ce n s u s B u r e a u 's L o c a l Employment Dynamics program provides another source of data on local communities, including coastal communities. 2 In partic- ular, the program's quar terly wo rk f o r ce in d ic ato r s (QW I s) offer several interesting indica- tors about the local labor market that can be aggregated by state, county, metropolitan area, or other types of geographies. These indicators, such as employ- ment and earnings for employees who worked for their employer for at least a full quarter, can be broken down by detailed industry, firm size and age, or selected worker demographics and can show how important waterborne industries are to coastal communities. For example, table 3 shows select QWI data for the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News metropolitan statistical area for 2014. The ship and boat building industry accounted for almost 5 percent of full- quar ter employees in that communit y. Water transportation and support activities for water transportation together accounted for 0.7 percent, and seafood produc t preparation and packaging accounted for 0.1 percent. There were relatively few jobs in other waterborne industries in the area. The QWI data also shows that in 2014, while average monthly earnings for full-quarter employees in the community were $3,721, in ship and boat building, average monthly earnings were about $6,447, or 173 percent higher than overall. Likewise, earnings in deep sea and coastal water transportation and support activities for water transporta- tion were significantly higher than the overall average ($9,267 and $5,018, respectively). However, earnings in the other waterborne industries in the area, all of which were rela- tively small in terms of overall employment shares for the area, were below the overall average. Regional Industry Cluster Mapping Tool Water transportation and related industries are especially concentrated and essential to economic competitiveness in several regions of the country. Regional concentrations of related industries are referred to as clus- ters. The U.S. Cluster Mapping Tool, 3 built through a partnership between Harvard Business School and the Economic Develop- ment Administration in the U.S. Department of Commerce, is a resource that allows users to identify industry clusters. T he Clus te r M ap p ing To o l id e nti f ies 67 different types of clusters, including water transportation, and makes it easy to analyze the clusters and the regions in which they exist. For the industries they define as water transportation industries, 4 the Virginia Beach metropolitan statistical area bubbles up as a critical cluster. In 2013, nearly 14 percent of the area's total jobs were in this cluster — nearly double the share for the second-ranked water transportation cluster, Los Angeles. Endnotes: 1, 2, 3. See "For more information," on next page. 4. It is important to note that economic measures of regionally based industry clusters can differ some- what. This occurs because the information and data can come from a broad range of sources or timeframes, and they often draw from sources that use different North American Industry Classifica- tion System industries to define a regional industry cluster. Selected Employment Indicators for Vi rginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News Coastal Community, 2014 Percent of Total Employment Average Monthly Earnings Average Monthly Earnings Relative to Overall Average Total, All Industries 100% $3,721 100% Select Waterborne Industries Aquaculture less than 0.05% $2,787 75% Fishing less than 0.05% $2,158 58% Seafood Product Preparation and Packaging 0.1% $3,078 83% Ship and Boat Building 4.9% $6,447 173% Deep Sea, Coastal, and Great Lakes Water Transportation 0.2% $9,267 249% Inland Water Transportation less than 0.05% $2,606 70% Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water less than 0.05% $1,604 43% Support Activities for Water Transportation 0.5% $5,018 135% Source: Analysis of Quarterly Workforce Indicators, available at http://qwiexplorer.ces.census.gov. Table 3