Proceedings Of The Marine

SUM 2016

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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25 percent biodiesel. Any blend with greater than 25 per- cent biodiesel content would be considered a MARPOL Annex II cargo, and any blend with less than 25 percent biodiesel would be considered a MARPOL Annex I cargo, or oil. As with any other flammable liquid, biodiesel must be carefully controlled when shipping. The fl ammable vapors generated must be dealt with safely, and electrical equipment in the hazardous areas of the ship must meet the electrical installation requirements for those areas. What is the Coast Guard doing about it? The Coast Guard and the international community have robust regulations in place to ensure the safe transporta- tion of biodiesel. Both MARPOL and the IBC code have strict regulations on construction standards and safety requirements for the international carriage of oils or chemicals; 46 CFR Subchapter D also contains strict safety and construction requirements for the domestic shipment of fl ammable and combustible liquid cargoes. There has been a recent push by some in the international community to reclassify biofuels as "MARPOL Annex I oil" instead of its current designation as a MARPOL Annex II chemical. Most of the emphasis for this change is on renewable diesel — not biodiesel — since renewable diesel has more chemical similarities to petroleum diesel oil. About the author: LT Andrew Murphy has served in the U.S. Coast Guard for more than 8 years. He received a master's degree in chemical engineering from the University of Rhode Island in 2014 and currently works as a staff engineer for the Coast Guard's Hazardous Materials Division. References: American Standards of Testing Materials Designation: D6751-12. National Biodiesel Board, Biodiesel Production Fact Sheet, www.biodiesel.org. Diesel Technology Forum, Renewable Diesel Fuels Fact Sheet, www.dieselforum. org. 46 Code of Federal Regulations Part 30-39 (Subchapter D). International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), Consolidated Edition, 2011. International Maritime Organization, 2011 Guidelines for the Carriage of Blends of Petroleum Oil and Biofuels, as Amended (MEPC.1/Circ.761/Rev.1), 1 February 2013. What is it? Biodiesel, or fatty acid meth Biodiesel, or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), is derived from raw vegetable oil or from raw vegetable oil or animal fats and produced through a chemical process through a chemical process called transesterifi cation. In the most common type of tra the most common type of transesterifi cation process, the oil or fat reacts with an alcoho oil or fat reacts with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium or potassiu (usually sodium or potassium hydroxide). The resulting products are biodiesel and gl products are biodiesel and glycerin. If a fuel is identifi ed as biodie If a fuel is identifi ed as biodiesel, it should meet the speci- fications outlined in the A fications outlined in the American Society of Testing Materials Standard D6751. I Materials Standard D6751. In a broader sense, biodiesel falls under the umbrella of falls under the umbrella of renewable fuels, which also includes renewable diesel, bu includes renewable diesel, but take note — renewable die- sel and biodiesel are two chem sel and biodiesel are two chemically different fuels, so the terms should not be used int terms should not be used interchangeably. While both are produced fr While both are produced from vegetable or animal fat feedstocks, they are different feedstocks, they are differentiated by the method of their production. Biodiesel is prod production. Biodiesel is produced by transesterifi cation, as described above, whereas r as described above, whereas renewable diesel is produced via hydrotreating or biomas via hydrotreating or biomass-to-liquid conversion pro- cesses, the results being a fu cesses, the results being a fuel that is chemically similar to standard diesel. Why should I care? Shipping Concerns: Domestically, biodiesel is sh Domestically, biodiesel is shipped as a fl ammable and combustible liquid in bulk u combustible liquid in bulk under 46 CFR Subchapter D (30-39). Internationally, it is s (30-39). Internationally, it is shipped as a chemical under the International Code for th the International Code for the Construction and Equip- ment of Ships Carrying Da ment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC) code entry "fatty acid m (IBC) code entry "fatty acid methyl esters." Under the International Conv Under the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARP Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), pure biodiesel is con- sidered a chemical and a MA sidered a chemical and a MARPOL Annex II cargo. How- ever, the majority of biodiese ever, the majority of biodiesel is shipped as a blend, com- bined with petroleum-deriv bined with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Under these conditions, depending on th conditions, depending on the ratio of biodiesel to petro- leum-derived diesel, the blen leum-derived diesel, the blend can be considered either a MARPOL Annex I or Annex MARPOL Annex I or Annex II cargo. The International Maritime Organization issu Maritime Organization issued MEPC.1/Circ.761/Rev.1, which set ratio limits at 75 which set ratio limits at 75 percent petroleum diesel to Understanding Biodiesel by lT andrew MurPhY Staff Engineer Hazardous Materials Division U.S. Coast Guard Chemical of the Quarter 71 Summer 2016 Proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings www.uscg.mil/proceedings

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