Proceedings Of The Marine

SPR 2016

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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28 Proceedings Spring 2016 www.uscg.mil/proceedings on how the vessel should operate in normal as well as emergency situations; how drills and trainings are to be conducted; and the roles, responsibilities, authority, com- munication, and reporting expectations of the designated persons. In addition, these procedures include processes for change, which creates continuous improvement. As a third safety net, various mechanical safeguards pre- vent, mitigate, and alert failures, including gas detection, cargo pressure, temperature, and level detection monitors; foam and other fre extinguishing systems; boil-off manage- ment equipment; pressure/vacuum reliefs; inert gas sys- tems; intrinsically safe and fameproof electrical equipment; and water spray for cooling and wash-down. The next safety net involves primary and secondary con- tainment systems designed to protect the cargo in many ways. For example, refrigerated cargo tanks are insulated to preserve the cargo's temperature, and therefore its pressure. The Safety Nets This industry-accepted safety culture that has evolved relies on more than just design and equipment; it relies upon fve distinct safety nets (see Figure 2), with governmental reg- ulations, industry standards, and company policies as its backbone. Trained personnel are the frst line of defense to ensure safe liquefied gas operations. Designated per- sonnel string together all the risks to avoid and address potential hazardous situations. Training requirements detail the courses, qualifcations, and experience personnel must have to work aboard liquefed gas carriers. Personnel aboard are trained to understand the cargo, equipment, and operational and emergency procedures in order to take the needed precautions. The next safety net is the safety management that ensures that the frst line of defense — crewmembers — follow time- tested procedures. Safety management systems are the approved "recipe" for designated personnel, with details Figure 2: The Liquefed Gas Carrier Safety Culture model depicts risk mitigation measures as fve distinct safety nets, with governmental regulations, indus- try standards, and company policies as its backbone. U.S. Coast Guard graphic.

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