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34 Proceedings Fall 2015 www.uscg.mil/proceedings more commonplace, a higher demand for LNG bunker ves- sels will emerge. As liquefed natural gas projects continue to push boundaries, foating LNG solutions and technolo- gies will continue to evolve. About the author: Captain Stanley Wendelewski is Excelerate Energy's manager of Marine Operations. He is a graduate of New York Maritime College at Fort Schuy- ler. Capt. Wendelewski spent 16 years at sea sailing in licensed capacities, including master and chief offcer aboard LNG vessels. Coming ashore in 2006, Capt. Wendelewski has worked in a variety of technical management positions with vessel owner/operators and as director of vetting and audits for a major oil company. Endnotes: 1. "Offshore LNG Value Chain," Excelerate Energy Presentation, September 2, 2009. 2. "Global LNG — FSRU overview 2014," Wood Mackenzie commodity market report, December 3, 2014. 3. Excelerate Energy Northeast Gateway Operations Manual, Rev 2, March 3, 2011. "USA: Neptune Suspends LNG Deepwater Port Operations," LNG World News, July 29, 2013. 4. The proposed Aguirre Offshore GasPort project facilities include operating an off- shore marine LNG receiving facility (Offshore GasPort) located about 3 miles off the southern coast of Puerto Rico, and a 4.1-mile-long subsea pipeline connecting the Offshore GasPort to the Aguirre plant. A foating storage and regasifcation unit (FSRU) would be moored at the Offshore GasPort on a semi-permanent basis. Ships would dock at the Offshore GasPort and deliver LNG to the FSRU. Both the ships and the FSRU would be under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard. The project is still under FERC administrative review. 5. "Innovations for the Global LNG Industry; Bringing Continents of Energy Together," Marine Technology Society, Excelerate Energy Presentation, March 22, 2007. 6. "Exporters ready to meet the greatest of expectations," SIGTTO/GIIGNL, LNG Shipping at 50/LNG today and tomorrow, October 2014. 7. "LNG Shipping Sector. Opportunity Knocks," DNB Markets, January 12, 2015. "Time is nigh for foating LNG Production," SIGTTO/GIIGNL, LNG Shipping at 50/LNG today and tomorrow, October 2014. Since the FLSO is mobile, the vessel can be stationed in dis- tant locations and moved to multiple reserves. It can also be moored dockside to access shore pipeline-grade gas or offshore to access subsea gas. Whether dockside or moored offshore, the concept is the same. The gas processing and liquefaction equipment on the vessel's main deck processes the raw natural gas and then the LNG is transferred internally to the vessel's cargo tanks. The stored liquefed natural gas is then offoaded to an arriving liquefed natural gas carrier. Looking Ahead With demand for LNG on the rise, the industry continues to bring liquefed natural gas solutions to the global market. In the United States, more than 25 proposed maritime LNG projects have been submitted to relevant regulatory agen- cies for approval to meet export demand for shale gas that is in surplus to United States domestic requirements. 6 U.S. import terminals are being converted to export facilities to take advantage of existing storage tanks and marine jetty facilities, new facilities in the U.S. are set to come online in late 2015, and fve foating liquefcation projects currently underway are near completion. 7 Globally, access to sig- nifcant offshore reserves in areas such as Australia and West Africa are being based on foating liquid natural gas concepts as a lower-cost, fast-track, fexible alternative to a shore-based facility. Additionally, some vessels are being designed to burn liq- uefed natural gas for propulsion fuel. As this use becomes A foating liquefaction, storage, and offoading unit.