Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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56 Proceedings Spring 2016 www.uscg.mil/proceedings elements form a feedback loop that organizations can mine for sources and potential for human error. Personnel can then address these through the SMS risk management process. Therefore, it's important that organizations integrate human factors into the elements of a safety manage- ment system that deal with the following feedback loop elements: • risk management; • change management; • systems, equipment, and machinery design; • task and job design; • safety-critical personnel selection and training; • safety reporting and data analysis; • incident investigation. Risk management: Organizations should consider all people who interact with the system, estimate foresee- able noncompliance with standard operating proce- dures, note abnormal or infrequent modes of operation, and recognize how fatigue can relate to risk. Control measures for potential human error should focus on equipment design and usability; task and job design; and workplace design, procedures, training, communica- tion, teamwork, supervision, and monitoring. The most effective human error control measures either remove or modify the hazard. Change management: Integrating human factors into the change management process minimizes potential risks by considering the impact of the change to the people within the system. Further, change has the potential to introduce new human factor issues or even worsen existing issues, since changes in mach iner y, equipment, technology, procedures, work organization, and work processes are likely to affect human perfor- mance. Sy s t e m s , e q u i p m e n t , and machinery design: Designing and modify- ing human machine inter- faces such as control sys- tems, alarms, warnings, and automation within a system may involve sig- n ificant human factors risks. The most effective way to manage this risk is to integrate human factors and usability principles in the early design stages. 1 Table 2: Job Elements Job Design Design of Interface / Equipment Environment Rules and Procedures ✓ Number and nature of tasks ✓ Complexity ✓ Repetitiveness ✓ Delegation of duties ✓ Rules/ instructions ✓ Workload ✓ Team management ✓ Team spirit ✓ Group infuence ✓ Feedback ✓ Corrective actions ✓ Workplace layout ✓ Ergonomic design of equipment ✓ Usability of equipment ✓ Feedback ✓ Quality of equipment ✓ Inspection/ maintenance ✓ Management of information ✓ Presentation of outcome ✓ Temperature ✓ Noise ✓ Illumination ✓ Cleanliness ✓ Ventilation ✓ Weather conditions ✓ Wind ✓ Humidity ✓ Vibrations ✓ Dangerous substances ✓ Dangerous energy (i.e. thermal, electric) ✓ External dangers ✓ Content and relevance ✓ Flow ✓ Scope ✓ Interfaces ✓ Validity ✓ Adequate and comprehensive awareness ✓ Efort needed ✓ Emergency performance ✓ Flexibility ✓ Consultation w/staf ✓ Testing period ✓ Revision ✓ Change management Adapted from: European Railway Agency, Application guide for the design and implementation of Railway Safety Management System: Integrating Human Factors in SMS, ERA/GUI/10-2013/SAF V 1.0, 2013. Feedback Loop for Safety Performance Improvement