Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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58 Proceedings Spring 2016 www.uscg.mil/proceedings Safety-critical personnel selection and training: It is important to identify and assure that people who perform safety-critical functions are adequately trained. First, of course, you have to hire them, so it's important to identify the related knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed to perform a specifc role or job. Once organizations defne the job competencies, personnel must develop methods to select and train people based on these competencies. Fur- ther, organizations should evaluate current employees to ensure each has the appropriate competencies, and, if not, personnel should implement training to bridge any discern- ible gaps. Safety reporting and data analysis: The main objective of any safety data collection and analysis system is to make events, hazards, safety trends, and their contributing fac- tors visible, understandable, and supported by usable data so that effective corrective action can be taken. The behavior of people involved in incidents or near-misses may not dif- fer signifcantly from that observed when accidents occur. Cognitive failures, poor decision making, communication breakdowns, distractions, and all other factors contributing to accidents will also be present in near-misses. Because of this, it is important that a safety management system report- ing system identifes contributing human factors, and that personnel within the company are trained and encouraged to identify and report them. Incident investigation: When accidents and incidents occur, it is essential that the company properly investigates how human factors may have contributed to the situation. The human factors component of investigation should be based on a framework for systematic investigations, consider- ing human error from the individual and organizational levels. This requires that investigators be trained in basic human factors concepts, and organizations should design procedures to examine the detail of human performance factors that may have contributed to the event. Optimizing Overall Performance Integrating human factors elements into a safety manage- ment system provides a company a framework to optimize overall performance throughout a system lifecycle. While this method cannot completely eliminate the natural haz- ards associated with operating in an often harsh and unfor- giving maritime environment, implementing an SMS that integrates human factors reduces the risk to people, equip- ment, and the environment. About the author: Ms. Dawn M. Gray has been serving the U.S. Coast Guard since 2011. She manages human factors considerations in policy, regulation, and standards. Previously, she provided human factors oversight and support for projects across the Coast Guard feet. Ms. Gray has an MA in human factors and applied cognition, and is a certifed human factors professional. Bibliography: Civil Aviation Safety Authority, Integration of Human Factors into Safety Manage- ment Systems, CAAP SMS-2(0), 2009. European Railway Agency, Application guide for the design and implementation of Railway Safety Management System: Integrating Human Factors in SMS, ERA/ GUI/10-2013/SAF V 1.0, 2013. F. Xiang, H. Xuhong, and Zhao Bingquan, 2008, Research of Psychological Charac- teristics and Performance Relativity of Operators, Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 93:8, 1244-1249. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration, 2003. Human Reliability Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment for Positive Train Control, DOT/ FRA/ORD-03/15. Y. Jianxing, X. Zunwu, and F. Mingyang, 2014, Quantitative Human Reliability Analysis for Crew During Shipping Operation. Transactions of Tianjin University, 20:5, 375-378. J. Reason, Human Error, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Endnote: 1. Industry standards such as ASTM F-1166-07 Standard Practice for Human Engi- neering Design for Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities; ASTM 1337-10 Stan- dard Practice for Human Systems Integration Program Requirements for Ships and Marine Systems, Equipment, and Facilities; ANSI/HFES 100-2007 Human Factors Engineering of Computer Workstations; and ANSI/HFES 200 Human Factors Engineering of Software User Interfaces are useful sources for system and human machine interface design guidance. Table 3: Organizational Elements Work Patterns Management Communi cation Competence Management Supervision ✓ Structure and task allocation ✓ Resources ✓ Information ✓ Leadership ✓ Roles and responsibilities ✓ Change management ✓ Safety culture ✓ Learning organization ✓ Continuous improvement spirit ✓ Structure ✓ Flow ✓ Internal ✓ External ✓ Recruitment process ✓ Competencies/skills ✓ Training programs ✓ Methods ✓ Re-examination of task requirements ✓ Competency verifcation ✓ Performance monitoring ✓ Monitoring ✓ Lessons learned ✓ Management review ✓ Continuous improvement Adapted from: European Railway Agency, Application guide for the design and implementation of Railway Safety Management System: Integrating Human Factors in SMS, ERA/GUI/10-2013/SAF V 1.0, 2013.