Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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62 Proceedings Fall 2015 www.uscg.mil/proceedings Endnotes: 1. "Guidelines to Prepare for Oil Sands Product Spills in Varied Aquatic Envi- ronments," by Benjamin Douglas Silliman, 2014 International Oil Spill Conference, May 2014. 2. Congressional Research Service: "Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues." 3. "Review of Diluted Bitumen Properties Relevant to Spill Cleanup," by Merv Fingas, Spill Science, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Sept. 2014. 4. Jeffery Kimble, Faith A. Fitzpatrick, Ralph H. Dollhopf, Daniel M. Capone, Thomas P. Graan, Ronald B. Zelt and Rex Johnson, "Response to Heavy, Non-Floating Oil Spilled in a Great Lakes River Environment: A Mul- tiple-Lines-Of-Evidence Approach for Submerged Oil Assessment and Recovery," International Forum on Group V Oils, Sept. 9–10, 2014, Detroit, Michigan. Bibliography: Transporting Alberta's Oil Sands Products: Defning the Issues and Assess- ing the Risks, NOAA technical memorandum NOS OR&R 44, Sanese Crosby, Robin Fay, Ali Kani, Jeffery R. Smith, Terry Sullivan and Robert Pavia, NOAA offce of Response and Restoration, Seattle, WA, Sept. 2013. Spills of Nonfoating Oils: Risk and Response, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 1999. Spills of Emulsifed Fuels: Risks and Response, National Research Council, National Academy Press, 2002. A Study of Fate and Behavior of Diluted Bitumen Oils on Marine Waters, Dil- bit Experiments — Gainford, Alberta, Canada, Witt O'Brien's, Polaris Applied Sciences and Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, Nov. 2013. Floating Heavy Oil Recovery: Current State Analysis, by David Cooper, for US Coast Guard Research and Development Center, July 27, 2006. Orimulsion® Spill Response Manual, PDVSA Bitor, Feb. 1999. Public Health Assessment, Kalamazoo River Enbridge Oil Spill, Calhoun and Kalamazoo Counties, Michigan, prepared by Michigan Department of Community Health, Aug. 26, 2014. EPA Emergency Response Air Monitoring Guidance Tables, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009, Edition 2. Guidelines for Offshore Oil Spill Response Plans, Guidance for Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration, Production and Pipeline Facility Operators, Appendix A — Health and Safety Guidelines, American Petroleum Institute Technical Report 1145, Sept. 2013. Oil Spill Responder Health and Safety, IIECA and OGP, Dec. 2012. Effects of Diluted Bitumen on the Environment: A Comparative Study, http://nas- sites.org/dilbit/, accessed Jan. 13, 2014. For a spill on land, research suggests that low-pressure washing might not be an effective strategy, but that surface washing agents could be useful on oil exposed to the air for up to four days. Additionally, in the later phases of a response, diluted bitumen and conventional crude oils will both experience weathering processes such as oxidation and sedimentation. About the authors: Mr. Kurt Hansen has worked at the USCG Research and Development Center since 1993, working on projects dealing with oil spill prevention and response since 1998. He previously served as a sonar engineer and qualifed U.S. Navy SCUBA diver at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center. He holds an M.S. in ocean engineering from the University of Rhode Island and a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Delaware. LT Sara Booth has served in the U.S. Coast Guard for 10 years in many capacities including compliance inspections, environmental response, research project management and design, and industry and interagency stakeholder coordination. LT Booth earned her master's degree in marine affairs from the University of Washington in 2010. How the Coast Guard is Increasing Preparedness Personnel from the Office of Marine Environmental Response Policy are working closely with National Strike Force Coordination Center stafers and the oil spill response industry to increase preparedness for potentially sinking oils such as dilbit. The team is updating the guidelines for the U.S. Coast Guard oil spill removal organization classif- cation program, which will help increase preparedness by more clearly outlining the process to validate commercial oil response capabilities.