Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.
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16 Proceedings Spring 2014 www.uscg.mil/proceedings plans and protocols. It involves people and the ties that bind them across agencies, jurisdictions, sectors, industries, and geographies. These examples illustrate how social capital can enhance port resiliency by enabling an effcient marine transportation system recovery process, while maintaining border security. These examples also illustrate that social capital is already being cultivated in the maritime domain. But we must con- tinue building upon and enhancing this social capital and developing new mechanisms to cultivate these relation- ships. We have not seen our last storm in a port. In an era of a changing climate, increasing maritime domain usage, and diminishing government resources, port planners, man- agers, and stakeholders are challenged to make ports and maritime commerce resilient to all manner of threats. Cul- tivating social capital in port communities and within the maritime domain is one of the most powerful and cost-effec- tive investments we can make in marine transportation sys- tem recovery, border security, and port resiliency. About the author: Dr. Smythe conducts research on marine policy at the Center for Maritime Policy and Strategy at the Coast Guard Academy. She has a Ph.D. in marine affairs from the University of Rhode Island. She also holds a 100-ton USCG master's license and has sailed as professional crew aboard sail-powered training ships. Author's note: Interviews conducted for this article are part of the author's pub- lished and ongoing research. Research presented here was funded in part by the Quick Response Grant Program of the University of Colorado Natural Hazards Center, National Science Foundation grant CMMI1030670. Endnotes: 1. See Aldrich, D.B. 2010. "Fixing Recovery: Social Capital in Post-Crisis Resilience." Journal of Homeland Security, June 2010; and 2012. Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2. Kapucu, N. 2006. "Interagency Communication Networks During Emergencies: Boundary Spanners in Multiagency Coordination." American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 36 No. 2, June 2006. 3. Dynes, R. 2006. "Social Capital: Dealing With Community Emergencies." Journal of Homeland Security Affairs, Vol. II, No. 2., July 2006. 4. Assessing the Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on the Port of New York and New Jersey's Maritime Responders and Response Infrastructure. Quick Response Report, No. 238, University of Colorado Natural Hazards Center. Available online at www. colorado.edu/hazards/research/qr/qrpubs10s.html. 5. Ibid. manage the complexities of maritime space and the mul- titude of maritime threats. Bringing these people together regularly played an important role in building social capital among committees. Some Hurricane Sandy MTSRU members explained the suc- cess of the recovery as being grounded in these committees. For example, the longstanding NY/NJ Harbor Operations Committee met on a regular basis, so its members were used to working together for the betterment of the port. In addition, evidence from Hurricane Sandy also illustrated how social capital is built through adversity. 5 Some MTSRU members described the strong working relationships among port partners as grounded in the port response to past inci- dents, ranging from smaller storms like Hurricane Irene in 2011 to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. These experiences built trust among port partners as well as a sense of common purpose that rose above public/private sector boundaries or the competition inherent within the private sector. Planned exercises and simulations also bring agencies together and build relationships, trust, and mutual under- standing. Additionally, exercises facilitate knowledge trans- fer, another beneft of social capital. Exercises help those involved to learn the authorities, capabilities, and resources that each individual and organization brings to the table, while building relationships that will facilitate future operations. Key to Port Resiliency Port resiliency involves more than hardening infrastruc- ture, protecting the supply chain, and enhancing security "You don't want to meet them in a crisis. You want to meet them when things are quiet, and establish those relationships." — Mr. Frank Fiumano, port security specialist, Sector New York. Spring2014_FINAL.indd 16 3/21/14 11:13 AM