Proceedings Spring 2014
Ask the Experts
Of course, those with the most experience in a particular
element of the maritime domain (such as cargo) are in the
best position to determine what is normal. Cargo at one time
was break bulk, but it is now predominantly containerized.
Additionally, ships are larger today and their cargoes are
more complex than ever.
Many companies use NCB services to keep cargoes "nor-
mal," meaning well documented, safe, and secure. The
more the maritime domain stays normal, the more the Coast
Guard can focus its attention and resources on what is not
About the author:
Mr. Ian Lennard is the president of National Cargo Bureau. He has
been with the bureau for 16 years in various capacities. He holds a B.S. in
business/economics from S.U.N.Y. at Plattsburgh and a Juris Doctor from
A Review of Federal Maritime Domain Awareness Programs. Written tes-
timony of the U.S. Coast Guard for a House transportation and Infra-
structure Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation,
Hearing, July 3, 2012. Also available at www.dhs.gov/news/2012/07/03/
Memorandum of Agreement Between the United States Coast Guard
and the National Cargo Bureau Regarding Maritime Security.
National Cargo Bureau and United States Coast Guard Outline of Part-
nership Agreement Maritime Security Awareness.
Minutes of the Regular Meeting of Directors of National Cargo Bureau,
September 23, 2002.
The National Strategy for Maritime Security, September 2005. Jeffrey
High, interview by Robert Watts, notation, 25 March 2005, Coast Guard
headquarters, Washington D.C.
and strengthened the maritime security posture throughout
Following the signing of the 2002 memorandum of agree-
ment, former Commandant of the Coast Guard Admiral
Collins addressed the audience at a National Cargo Bureau
board of directors meeting: "Safety and security are really
two sides of the same coin. We can apply the same benefts
of partnership to security issues as we have done to issues of
safety. You have a great deal of knowledge and understand-
ing of cargo, especially hazardous cargo. Since 9/11, that has
moved right to the forefront of our attention. You are a key
asset in expanding our awareness of the maritime domain
through your knowledge of ships, marine operations, and
cargo. Maritime domain awareness is vitally important to
gather what knowledge we can to understand what our
threats and vulnerabilities are on the waterfront. We must
be able to distinguish what is normal and what is not."
National Cargo Bureau
The National Cargo Bureau is not primarily a security
focused organization, but is rather an organization
concerned with safety. It was created in 1952 as a not-
for-proft organization with a mission of safety of life
and cargo at sea. The bureau was created to render
assistance to the U.S. Coast Guard in discharging its
responsibilities under the 1948 International Conven-
tion for Safety of Life at Sea and for other closely
National Cargo Bureau surveyor Captain Emily Lai tests water density on
a dry bulker. NCB surveyors work in the maritime domain on a daily basis.
Photos courtesy of the National Cargo Bureau.
Cargoes of numerous shapes and sizes with varying hazards pass through the maritime
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