recent research on prehistoric settlement patterns, and archaeological research to refine
the predictive model for locating intact, submerged prehistoric archaeological sites.6
Humans are biased with respect to their "favorite" natural resources (such as coral reefs, sensitive habitats,
marine mammals, sea birds, or cultural resources).
Therefore, conversations that begin with bias will end
with bias or they will end with competition to acquire
what one values most at the possible expense of the
Because science provides an objective and rational
basis for decision making, it is the only logical starting
point for discussions regarding marine planning. As
regional planning bodies are formed and the planning process begins, it is time for federal agencies to
expand the scope of their ocean science programs, so
that they can effectively serve a broad spectrum of
future marine planning information needs.
Potential for shipwrecks based on shipwreck density and
geographic factors. Graphic courtesy of TRC Environmental
Space-UseConfictIdentifcationandAnalysis of Potential Mitigation Measures: This
new and emerging ocean uses, such as aquaculture and offshore renewable energy, and
recommends mitigation measures. Information will be valuable to state, regional, and
federal organizations, including coastal zone
management agencies, state task forces, and
and Analysis on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf: This study gathers information
on historic shipwrecks and models the potential for finding shipwrecks and submerged
archeological resources at various sites, based
on reconstruction of past landscapes, human
settlement patterns with site formation and
preservation conditions — particularly during
the period of coastal transgression. It builds
upon this body of work by exploring more
About the authors:
Dr. Rodney Cluck is the chief of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Division of Environmental Sciences. He has served as
BOEM's senior social scientist and as the project manager for the
frst U.S. offshore wind facility. Dr. Cluck holds a Ph.D. in environmental sociology from Mississippi State University and a master's
degree in rural sociology from the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.
Dr. Amardeep Dhanju is a senior ocean policy analyst with Avanti
Corporation on a contract to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, to assist with the National Ocean Policy initiative. He holds a
Ph.D. in Marine Studies from the University of Delaware.
1. Council on Environmental Quality. (July 19, 2010). Final Recommendations
of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force. Available at www.whitehouse.
2. Environmental Studies Program Information System. Available at
3. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. (2013). Bayesian Analysis for Spatial
Siting (BASS) project report v1.3. Prepared by Parametrix, Portland, Oregon. Available at www.data.boem.gov/PI/PDFImages/ESPIS/5/5306.pdf.
4. O'Connell, A. F., B. Gardner, A. T. Gilbert, and K. Laurent. (2009). Compendium of Avian Occurrence Information for the Continental Shelf Waters along
the Atlantic Coast of the United States, Final Report (Database Section – Seabirds). Beltsville, MD: Prepared by the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research
Center, Beltsville, MD. U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey,
and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Headquarters, OCS Study
5. Industrial Economics, Inc. (2012). Identifcation of Outer Continental Shelf
renewable energy space-use conficts and analysis of potential mitigation measures. Herndon, VA: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean
Energy Management. OCS Study BOEM 2012-083.
6. TRC Environmental Corporation. (2012). Inventory and analysis of archaeological site occurrence on the Atlantic outer continental shelf. New Orleans, LA:
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy, Gulf of Mexico OCS
Region. OCS Study BOEM 2012-008.