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94 Proceedings Spring 2015 www.uscg.mil/proceedings Maryland University College. 1/c Samantha Cardoza and 1/c Joshua Moan are cadets majoring in Marine Environmental Science at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. All three work in Prof. Joshua Gray's laboratory. Bibliography: Bull, J. M. R. The deadliness below: Weapons of mass destruction thrown into the sea years ago present danger now — and the Army doesn't know where. The Daily Press, 2005. http://expeditionwriter.com/?p=168. Llanos, M. World War II bombs, mustard gas in Gulf of Mexico need to be checked, experts warn. USA News, Sept. 28, 2012. www.uscg.mil/hq/nsfweb/AST/Site/Welcome%20_f les/Brief ng%20Book%202012. pdf. www.mass.gov/eea/docs/dep/cleanup/sites/nb610.doc. Endnote: 1. Reprinted with permission from Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 59, Issue 1, Kathryn Weibrecht, Sean Rhyee, Mary Elise Manuell, Craig Longo, Edward W. Boyer, and Eric Brush, "Sulfur Mustard Exposure Presenting to a Community Emergency Department." Help Reduce Risk Discarded chemical weapons remain threats, even many decades after their disposal at sea, due to their stability and the location of dump sites close to f shing grounds. How- ever, proper care and response can greatly reduce the risk of injury from accidental exposure. About the authors: Prof. Joshua Gray received his doctorate of Pathobiology from the Pennsylva- nia State University in 2004. He performed a four-year, post-doctoral fellow- ship in toxicology at Rutgers University, before joining the chemistry faculty of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in 2008. One of his research specialties is blistering agents, and he is a member of the Rutgers University CounterACT Center of Excellence, a research consortium focused on developing medical countermeasures for mustard gas. LCDR Gregory Crettol received his M.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Connecticut in 2013. He was previously stationed in York- town, Va., as the chief of the International Maritime Off cer's School. His f eld tours include supervisor of MSD Unalaska and senior maritime safety inspector of Sector Seattle. LCDR Crettol received a direct commission in 1998, after graduating from Washington State University with a B.S. in biochemistry and a B.S. in chemical engineering. MST2 Thomas Withers, currently stationed with the International Ice Patrol, has an M.S. in biosecurity and biodefense from the University of Chemical of the Quarter The 3 Rs The U.S. Army is the authority on incidents involving muni- tions and works closely with the U.S. Coast Guard when unex- ploded ordnance munitions (UXO) are located in the maritime environment. For your own safety, follow the "3Rs" of explo- sive safety — recognize, retreat, and report. Recognize Any mariner must "recognize" or be suspicious when encoun- tering a weapon or munitions container loaded with an unknown substance. It is not always easy to identify muni- tions, so, when in doubt, always treat the object as a serious threat to life and health. Retreat Due to the potential danger associated with a UXO or chem- ical warfare agent, immediately and carefully "retreat" away from any suspected weapon or munitions container. This may include returning the object to the water or securing the item and keeping the crew away. Do not touch, move, or disturb the object. Instead, depart the vicinity and mark the general area where it is located. Report At your f rst available opportunity, "report" the situation. Immediately notify the U.S. Coast Guard via VHF Channel 16, or contact the National Response Center at (800) 424-8802. You must also notify the state and local emergency operations centers of the incident as well, which can be suitably accom- plished by dialing 911. For more information: Additional Resources The U.S. Army, along with the Borden Institute, produced a textbook, "Medical Aspects of Chemical Warfare," which provides a detailed review of vesicants and many other chemical weapons. This book is available online, together with its sister book, "Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare." A 1987 report, "Chemical Weapons Movement History Compilation," details the history of chemical weapons movement and disposal by the U.S. Army following World War II. A later report from 1989, "Summary of Some Chemical Munitions Sea Dumps by the United States," further summarizes these dump sites. A third report, published in 20 01, "Off-shore Disposal of chemical Agents and Weapons Conducted by the United States" is another good resource. Frank Swain's narrative blog details several incidents in Delaware. Available at: http://scienceblogs.com/sciencepunk/ 2012/09/17/the-deadliest-catch/. For more information about sulfur mustard, contact: Regional poison control center (800) 222-1222 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Response Hotline (800) CDC-INFO (888) 232-6348 (TTY) Email enquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org Visit online at: www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/sulfurmustard/basics/ facts.asp.