Proceedings Of The Marine

SPR 2015

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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18 Proceedings Spring 2015 www.uscg.mil/proceedings events exceeded the capabilities of state resources, National Response Team members responded under the NCP, consid- ering anthrax a pollutant or contaminant in accordance with the defnition under CERCLA. Under that defnition, the NSF was deployed for both the September 11 th attacks and the anthrax events that followed to implement ICS structures, perform on-site air monitor- ing, assist with sampling and health and safety support, and to establish wash-down stations for rescue workers at the World Trade Center; on Capitol Hill; in Boca Raton, Florida; and at other anthrax response locations. Following 9-11, the NSF has increasingly been deployed to national security events such as Winter Olympics and Super Bowls and other national special security events to be on standby for potential biological or chemical mass casualty events. Notwithstanding the traditional statutory NCP pollution preparedness and response roles, which utilize the array of support functions the NSF provides as a special team for federal OSCs, the NSF now has a new WMD and terrorism consequence management role. About the author: CDR Keith M. Donohue is the commanding offcer of the Pacifc Strike Team. His previous assignments include Coast Guard Activities Europe; MSU Port Arthur, Texas; Coast Guard headquarters, Environmental Stan- dards Division; and MSO Providence, Rhode Island. He holds an M.S. in marine affairs and a B.S. in chemical oceanography. Bibliography: Hearings before the Committee on Public Works House of Representatives Ninety First Congress First Session on H.R. 4148 and Related Bills to Amend the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, (February 26, 27; March 4, 5, 6, 1969), Serial No. 91-1. Oil Pollution: A report to the President, a report of a special study requested by President Johnson by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Transportation, February 1968. Oil Pollution, Hearings before the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, First Session on H.R. 6495, H.R. 6609, H.R. 6794, and H.R. 7325, Bills to Amend the Oil Pollution Act, 1924, for the Purpose of Controlling Oil Pollution From Vessels, and for other purposes, (Febru- ary 25, 27, March 11, 12, 13, 18, 26, 27, 28, April 1, 1969); Serial No. 91-4. National Multi-Agency Oil and Hazardous Materials Pollution Contingency Plan. Endnotes: 1. See www.nmmc.co.uk/index.php?/collections/featured_ pictures/remember- ing_the_torrey_canyon_disaster. 2. The Department of Interior, Department of Transportation, Department of Defense, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Offce of Emer- gency Planning. 3. Available at www.geog.ucsb.edu/~kclarke/Papers/SBOilSpill1969.pdf. 4. See www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001451.html, for a list of oil spills and disasters. 5. See 40 FR 12658. 6. Federal register, Vol. 45, No. 55, Wednesday, March 19, 1980, p. 17832 -19833, and Franklin, B. Toxic Cloud Leaks at Carbide Plant in West Virginia. New York City: The New York Times, August 12, 1985. 7. Jasanoff, S. (1994) Learning from Disaster: Risk Management After Bhopal. University of Pennsylvania Press. 8. The National Response Team: 1989 Annual Report, Annex D, p. 66. 9. Storch Jr., and Captain R. L. Report of a National Strike Force Study; Commandant G-MER ltr, March 15, 1990. U.S. Coast Guard: NSF Study Itr'16450 of: 29 Jan 90. 10. See www.uscg.mil/history/. 11. P.L. 93-288 as amended by P.L. 100-707; Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 5121, et seq.). OPA 90��� Exxon Valdez Between 1989 and 1990, several large oil spills created, yet again, new focusing events for the NCP. First, in March 1989, the most notorious oil spill to hit the U.S. occurred when the tank vessel Exxon Valdez grounded off the coast of Prince William Sound, Alaska. The spill discharged approximately 11 million gallons of oil and affected approximately 1,300 miles of coastline. The response ultimately involved more than 10,000 workers during a four-year period. 10 In response, after 15 years of unsuccessful attempts to pass similar legislation, the House and Senate unanimously passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), which expanded federal removal authority, added federal on-scene coordinator responsibilities, and broadened coordination and preparedness planning requirements. OPA 90 also directed developing a national planning and response sys- tem that would include tank vessel response plans, facility response plans, and area contingency plans — all of which were to be adequate for "worst case" response. The act required the Coast Guard to establish a national response unit to relieve equipment and personnel short- ages and provide spill contingency planning coordination among federal agencies. Specifcally, this unit would: • maintain lists of spill response equipment, • provide technical assistance, • coordinate equipment and resources, • assist in preparing area contingency plans, • administer the Coast Guard's strike teams. Thus, Coast Guard leaders established the National Strike Force Coordination Center (NSFCC) in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. The NSFCC, along with a newly created Coast Guard Public Information Assist Team, and the three Coast Guard strike teams, became the Coast Guard's new National Strike Force (NSF). Today's Response Realities��� 9/11, Anthrax The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pen- tagon on September 11, 2001, and the anthrax events that began in October 2001, tested federal response capabilities in ways they have never been tested before. Shortly follow- ing the September 11 attacks, major disaster declarations under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act triggered full federal response plan imple- mentation and tested federal capabilities nationwide. 11 The anthrax events posed different, yet concurrent, tests for federal responders. Although none of the individual anthrax

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