Proceedings Of The Marine

SPR 2015

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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Page 40 of 102

38 Proceedings Spring 2015 commence within 18 hours near shore and within 24 hours offshore. 2 Note, the largest cargo tank must then be light- ered continuously within the frst 24 hours — this includes coordinating a receiving vessel, mooring equipment, and fenders, in addition to the lightering package. As a result, many salvors maintain pre-positioned lightering packages around the U.S. to meet these stringent planning timelines. For the Coast Guard responder, regulatory standards and industry guidelines support on-site safety efforts. For exam- ple, the declaration of inspection regulatory standards apply to emergency transfer operations. For offshore lightering operations, the Oil Companies International Marine Forum and Industry Task Force on Offshore Lightering guidelines are based on lessons learned from multiple ship-to-ship operations and will also prove valuable during emergency operations. The National Strike Force has conducted and managed mul- tiple emergency lightering operations in myriad operational environments and lessons learned from these events helped improve equipment design and procedures. For example, diffculties encountered in attempts to lighter viscous oil was the impetus to develop a viscous oil pumping system that includes a water injection system to reduce head pres- sure and increase pumping distances. Commercial Diving Operations Diving operations, especially during a dynamic, time-crit- ical marine salvage response, are inherently hazardous, so diver safety is a priority during every salvage operation. Prior to commencing operations in the U.S., those charged with oversight should inspect the commercial diving opera- tion in accordance with applicable Coast Guard and Occupa- tional Safety and Health Administration regulations. For example, when diving in contaminated waters or in an area where there is a substantial threat of discharge of Environmental conditions and weather may also act as limiting factors. For example, an increase in sea state may increase dynamic loading and the wind speed may exceed the crane's operational parameters. The same basic rules apply for lifting a hydraulic power unit from the dock to a barge, as lifting an entire vessel. In sum, you need the right equipment, rigging, and personnel. An independent safety offcer who participates in a pre-lift job hazard analysis will also pay dividends. Emergency Lightering Grounding salvage often involves lightering cargo and fuel to reduce ground reaction, remove a potential pollutant, to remove weight from the vessel, and to save the cargo. While it is preferred to lighter liquid cargoes ship to ship, salvors must be prepared to conduct "over the top" transfer proce- dures using hydraulic submersible pumps. In fact, U.S. Coast Guard regulations now require emergency lightering to Safety Recommendations for Incident Commanders ✔ Immediately activate the vessel response plan to initiate actions by a professional salvor that meets the Coast Guard's salvage and marine frefghting regulations. ✔ Request National Strike Force and Salvage Engineering Response Team leadership to integrate into the unifed command and provide technical oversight. ✔ Base operational safety requirements on regulatory and industry standards. ✔ Conduct a job hazard analysis to mitigate risks prior to commencing operations. ✔ Design the incident command organizational structure to facilitate effective communications during time-critical salvage operations. Emergency lightering operation. Tug and barge fre.

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