Proceedings Of The Marine

SUM 2015

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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44 Proceedings Summer 2015 "Unfortunately, the current generation of ECDIS systems, though certified as comply- ing with regulatory requirements, can be operated at a very low level of functionality and with key safety features disabled or circumvented." — Mr. Steven Clinch, Chief Inspector of Marine Accidents Marine Accident Investigation Branch If we want usable systems then, as a minimum, an appropri- ate design should assume the existence of error, continually provide feedback, continually and appropriately interact with operators, and have a design appropriate for the worst of situations. 4 The best way that is available today to achieve this is to use human-centered design, because the focus is not only on the fnal interface between the user and the system, but also on what's "hidden" behind the interface. In short, HCD ensures that human factors are considered in parallel with functional requirements. The maritime industry generally employs crew resource management techniques and safety management systems. The next logical step is to apply this same understanding of human beings to the design of the systems that ships' crews use to do their jobs. Achieving Usability An important principle of human-centered design is that it focuses on applying usability throughout the entire devel- opment life cycle, so that designed systems ft the charac- teristics of the intended users (and maintainers), rather than selecting, training, and/or adapting users to ft the system, as tends to be the case now. Human-centered design also ensures that the entire socio- technical system is accounted for, including the equipment, the crew, the social structure, learning and training, the environment, and the overall goals of the tasks that people need to perform. Development and design that only focus on isolated segments, such as only the functions of a system, not only result in localized, isolated improvements, but may also create new problems and diffculties. e-Navigation Some industries, such as commercial aviation, defense, and the software industry understand the need to design for the way people work. Studies from other industries (e.g. air traffc control) show that changes made up front in the initial phases of design and development lead to a more cost-effective approach. It is signifcantly more costly (up to 100 times) to make changes once the system is in operation. 5 There is hope that the maritime industry will include HCD as part of the IMO-led e-Navigation development. Address- ing user needs and equipment "usability" has been part of the IMO-led e-navigation development since at least 2009. 6 Additionally, a 2012 Nautical Institute e-Navigation work- shop debate concluded that the e-Navigation development process should include an acceptable user experience. 7 With the wheels now in full spin, the IMO is now fnalizing guidelines to help ensure that human-centered design is adopted in e-Navigation system design and development. 8 So now the maritime industry has the opportunity to capi- talize on what should rightly be seen as one of the most sig- nifcant changes in the last few decades. Applying human- centered design to future navigation systems has enormous potential to produce results that will reduce costs, increase operations effciency, and deliver signifcant safety improve- ments. About the authors: Mr. Nick Lemon leads two Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) teams responsible for providing navigation and nautical advice and coor- dinating delegated maritime legislation maintenance. He has worked for AMSA for nearly 12 years, after a 22-year career in the Royal Australian Navy as a hydrographic specialist. He holds bachelor of surveying degree, a graduate degree in business administration, and is a member of the Nauti- cal Institute, the Hydrographic Society, and the Australian Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute. Michelle Rita Grech, Ph.D., supports human-centred-design guidelines for e-Navigation. She previously managed human systems integration research for naval platforms. She has a mechanical engineering degree and a Ph.D. in human factors, and has more than 20 years of experience as an engineer and human factors professional. She is a frequent guest lecturer/presenter and has published extensively regarding maritime human factors. Endnotes: 1. Allision of the Passenger Vessel Seastreak Wall Street with Pier 11. National Transporta- tion Safety Board, January 9, 2013. 2. Report on the investigation of the grounding of Ovit in the Dover Strait on 18 September 2013. Marine Accident Investigation Branch. 3. Peterson, S.P. Human-centric design challenges, in Marine Electrical and Control Systems Safety Conference. Delivering Integrated, Dependable, Safe and Reliable Systems 2013: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 4. Norman, D.A. The problem of automation: Inappropriate feedback and interaction, not over automaton. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1980 (1990). 5. Gawron, V.J., Dennison, T.W. and Biferno, M.A. (1996). Mockups, Physical and Electronic Human Models, and Simulations. In: O'Brien, T.G, Charlatan, S.G. (Eds.) Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey. 6. The IMO Strategy for the Development of e-navigation contained in the IMO Mari- time Safety Committee document MSC 85/26/Add.1, annex 20 (2009). 7. e-Navigation usability. Nautical Institute, International Maritime Organization: London, 2012. 8. The IMO Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue Subcommittee document NCSR 2/WP.4 (2015).

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