Proceedings Of The Marine

FALL 2015

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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Page 77 of 94

75 Fall 2015 Proceedings the supply chain, of par- ticular importance to the Coast Guard is the refning segment. At a n oi l ref i ner y, t he crude oil is processed and ref i ned i nto f u nct ional products like petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and lique- fed petroleum gas. These types of products serve basic needs like fueling the transportation system, heating homes, and pow- ering the electrical grid. Downstream Opportunities Pa r t ic u la r t y pes of oi l are processed at specifc types of refneries, depending on chemical composition and functional purpose. For instance, diluted bitumen, a heavy crude oil primarily extracted in Canada, is best suited for refneries in the Gulf Coast, because they are confgured to process heavier crudes. While the Coast Guard's footprint in the downstream sector is not as signifcant in comparison to other streams, the con- sequences of disruptions and the subsequent public impact make the downstream sector a crucial component for Coast Guard inspectors and responders to understand. Full Coverage To ensure we maintain a pulse on future developments in the oil and gas sector, the Coast Guard must establish streamlined mission continuity plans within regulatory and response-related Coast Guard offces. Lacking a clear nexus to the upstream, midstream, or down- stream sectors, the Coast Guard will be unable to identify future trends or develop a practical strategy for future marine safety operations. To accomplish this, we should consider facilitating engagements to augment existing inter- agency organizations like the National Response Team, with committees focused on the oil and gas supply chain; or promulgate federal advisory committees to synergize the interagency and industry for Coast Guard priorities like the Energy Renaissance. About the author: LT Brandon Aten has served in the U.S. Coast Guard for seven years in capacities including compliance inspections, environmental response, and naval engineering. LT Aten recently completed marine environmental pro- tection industry training, where he worked with the Oil Spill Preparedness Division at the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement and the director of Midstream Operations at the American Petroleum Institute. Bibliography: U.S. Energy Information Administration, November 2008, "Technology-based oil and natural gas plays: Shale shock! Could there be billions in the Bakken?," 16 Janu- ary 2009. "3 to 4.3 Billion Barrels of Technically Recoverable Oil Assessed in North Dakota and Montana's Bakken Formation — 25 Times More Than 1995 Estimate," U.S. Geo- logical Survey, April 10, 2008. Archived from the original and retrieved on 11 April 2008. Endnotes: 1. National Petroleum Council, "Enhancing Emergency Preparedness for Natural Disasters," Washington, D.C., 2014. 2. U.S. Energy Information Agency, "U.S. remained world's largest producer of petroleum and natural gas hydrocarbons in 2014," Washington, DC, Apr. 2015, 3. Congressional Research Service, "U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Back- ground and Issues for Congress," Washington, D.C., December 2014. 4. L.A. Times, "Crude oil train accidents prompt NTSB safety recommendations," Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 2014. Critical elements of the oil supply chain. Graphic courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.

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