Proceedings Of The Marine

FAL 2012

Proceedings magazine is a communication tool for the Coast Guard's Marine Safety & Security Council. Each quarterly magazine focuses on a specific theme of interest to the marine industry.

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Page 50 of 94

Analytical Techniques Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography separates the components of oil, primarily on the basis of their boiling points. The sepa- ration is carried out under controlled conditions such that the same compo- nent will be eluted (removed by dissolving) from the gas chromato- graphic column at the same relative time for all samples. The separated components are sensed by a flame ionization detector and simultaneously recorded elec- tronically. Interpretation of evap- orative weathering is relatively straightforward, because it affects components in the same sequence as they are displayed graphically. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry uses a mass selec- tive detector to continuously collect the mass spectrum for the components eluting from the gas chromatograph. The mass spectrum, reflecting the ion fragments present, can be used to conclusively identify individual components. For oil iden- tification, selected target ions representing biomarkers in the oil are selected. These biomarkers are components unique to petro- leum oils; their ratios are used to characterize individual oils. Because some are highly resistant to biodegradation and other types of weathering, severely weathered oils that cannot be identified by other means can often be matched through this technique. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy uses the absorption of infrared energy over a spectral region that corresponds to the bond stretches and vibrations of the molecules that form the oil. A number of absorptions are common to all petroleum oils, which allows the analyst to identify the sample as a petroleum product. Other absorptions are used for uniquely identifying specific oil samples. Comparison of the infrared spectra, taking into account weath- ering differences, is sometimes used to eliminate dissimilar sources from further analysis. Fourier transform infrared spec- troscopy is particularly sensitive to the presence of water and can be used to screen samples to reduce prep time, especially in cases containing a very large number of samples from cargo or fuel tanks that are likely to be free of water. 48 Proceedings Fall 2012 WKH PLG V ZKHQ WKH &RDVW *XDUG 5HVHDUFK DQG 'HYHORSPHQW &HQWHU GHYHORSHG WKH RLO VSLOO LGHQWLÀFD- WLRQ PHWKRGRORJ\ 7KH SULPDU\ PLVVLRQ RI 06/ LV WR FRQGXFW WKH FKHPLFDO DQDO\VHV QHFHVVDU\ WR LGHQWLI\ WKH VRXUFH RI DQ RLO VSLOO LQ FRQMXQFWLRQ ZLWK &RDVW *XDUG ÀHOG LQYHVWLJDWLRQV 7KH 0DULQH 6DIHW\ /DE VXSSRUWV SROOXWLRQ LQYHVWLJD- WRUV DQG YDULRXV IHGHUDO VWDWH DQG ORFDO DJHQFLHV E\ SURYLGLQJ IRUHQVLF DQDO\VLV RI VSLOOHG RLO VDPSOHV DQG VXVSHFWHG VRXUFH VDPSOHV $GGLWLRQDOO\ 06/ ZRUNV FORVHO\ ZLWK WKH 1DWLRQDO 3ROOXWLRQ )XQGV &HQWHU DQG WKH 'HSDUWPHQW RI -XVWLFH WR SURVHFXWH UHVSRQVLEOH SDUWLHV 7KH 0DULQH 6DIHW\ /DERUDWRU\·V DQDO\WLFDO HYLGHQFH SURYLGHV ODZ HQIRUFHPHQW DQG FRVW UHFRY- HU\ EHQHÀWV DV 06/·V IRUHQVLF FKHPLVW SURYLGHV H[SHUW ZLWQHVV WHVWLPRQ\ IRU KHDULQJV DQG FRXUW SURFHHG- LQJV DV QHFHVVDU\ 7KH ODE XVHV VHYHUDO FRPSOHPHQWDU\ FKHPLFDO WHVWV WKDW H[SORLW WKH XQLTXH LQWULQVLF SURSHUWLHV RI SHWUR- OHXP RLO DQG PDNH LW SRVVLEOH WR PDWFK VSLOOHG RLO ZLWK LWV FKHPLFDO VRXUFH 06/ SURYLGHV WKH PHDQV WR À[ RLO SROOXWLRQ UHVSRQVLELOLW\ DVVHVV SHQDOWLHV DQG KHOS UHFRYHU IHGHUDO SROOXWLRQ FOHDQXS IXQGV H[SHQGHG GXULQJ DQ LQFLGHQW 7KH ODE·V ZRUN DOVR VHUYHV DV D GHWHUUHQW WR GHOLEHUDWH RLO SROOXWLRQ GLVFKDUJHV DQG HQFRXUDJHV UHSRUWLQJ DQG DFFHSWDQFH RI UHVSRQVLELOLW\ IRU DFFLGHQWDO VSLOOV Oil Spill Identification Methodology 7KH 2LO ,GHQWLÀFDWLRQ 6\VWHP 2,6 XVHV WKH XQLTXH LQWULQVLF SURSHUWLHV RI SHWUROHXP RLO WKDW PDNH LW SRVVLEOH WR PDWFK VSLOOHG RLO WR WKH FRUUHFW FKHPLFDO VRXUFH 7KH V\VWHP VXSSRUWV PXOWLSOH DQDO\WLFDO PHWKRGV 2I WKH RULJLQDO IRXU WHFKQLTXHV GHYHO- RSHG DQG HYDOXDWHG IRU WKH 2,6 WZR RI WKHP XVHG WRGD\ KDYH XQGHUJRQH PDUNHG WHFKQRORJLFDO UHÀQHPHQWV JDV FKURPDWRJUDSK\ DQG LQIUDUHG VSHFWURV- FRS\ $GGLWLRQDOO\ JDV FKURPDWRJUDSK\ PDVV VSHFWURPHWU\ KDV EHHQ DGGHG DV WKH PRVW SRZHUIXO DQDO\WLFDO WHFKQLTXH DYDLODEOH IRU RLO ILQJHUSULQWLQJ $V D FRQVHTXHQFH RI PRUH GHÀQLWLYH UHVXOWV PDGH SRVVLEOH E\ WKHVH LPSURYHG PHWK- RGV WKH ODE QR ORQJHU XVHV WKH RWKHU WZR RULJLQDO WHFKQLTXHV ÁXRUHVFHQFH VSHFWURVFRS\ DQG WKLQ OD\HU FKURPD WRJUDSK\

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